reports of Thousands of refugees at the Turkish-Greek border, the European Union is under pressure to act. Hundreds of people overcame apparently on Sunday the border to Greece. The Turkish government had previously announced that they will stop people on their way to Europe – despite an agreement with the EU. The failure of the Deal now? And how prepared are the EU and Germany in a case like that? Answers to the important questions.
Why is the agreement with Turkey has been closed?
The Deal between the EU and Turkey must be seen against the Background of the crisis of the year 2015. It reached its peak in the late summer and autumn, as hundreds of thousands thronged Syrians in the EU, many on the sea route from Turkey towards the Greek Islands. From there, they were redirected towards the Balkans and Western, Central and Northern Europe. At the same time, it became increasingly clear that the EU Commission recommended Europe would not work with the wide distribution in Greece and Italy, the national refugees, because of the fierce resistance of some States, but also for practical reasons. Therefore, by the end of 2015, it was clear that cooperation with Turkey is, after all, the EU-candidate, there is no way around would result in accession.
What was the idea behind the agreement?
The migration and Turkey expert Gerald Knaus from the think tank European Stability Initiative had been designed in September 2015, the basic outlines of a deal. This should be prevented, which was at this time that the southern European and the Balkans, close simply the borders to any migrants more through allow. On the Morning of the 18. March 2016, after late-night negotiations between German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte, as the representative of the EU presidency and the Turkish Premier Davutoglu, Ahmet, both sides agreed on the agreement. It was agreed that the EU receives, for each of the Greece back to Turkey led Syrians each have a Syrians directly from Turkey. And that Turkey has closed its borders in the direction of Greece as possible.
What got the Turkey for this?
Turkey is extensive, it should receive consideration. The EU promised that the accession process will be revived. Nothing, many EU member States exclude the accession of Turkey, in the meantime, generally, in addition, the Cyprus Problem is not cleared. Because Turkey did not meet rule of law conditions of the EU, failed the Plan, the visa obligation for Turkish citizens to repeal. Also, the customs Union has not been liberalized as planned. Similarly, there was a "voluntary admission (refugees) humanitarian reasons" by the EU. All this has led to fierce complaints from Ankara about the lack of observance of the Treaty of the EU. In addition, Turkey received a total of six billion euros awarded. The money should not be a lump sum paid, but the supply of refugees in the country, that is bound to the specific needs of flow. Projects are planned in the areas of education, health, Housing, humanitarian assistance, and other.
What led to the agreement?
The number of arriving refugees decreased rapidly and remained permanently at a relatively low level. The architects of the agreement, saw their hope confirmed that the Deal will deter to Europe aspiring refugees and migrants. However, the Balkan States and Austria concluded in early 2016, and to successively expand the borders for migrants, which also contributed to the decline in the number of incoming refugees – according to some-even more than the Turkey Deal.
The EU has immediately begun to help to set up projects for Syrian refugees. The Turkey sits in an Advisory capacity in a Committee in which the nature of the projects is decided. Since November of last year the EU according to Commission all six billion euros planned. 4.7 billion to be bound by a contract of 3.2 billion already spent. The projects ends at the latest in 2025. On one site, the Stand is in the Detail. While Turkey has almost annoyed from the beginning about the pace of the payments, insists the EU Commission that such a project could not flow tied aid faster, if it is to be useful. Erdogan has, however, has always claimed that the EU consider themselves not to their commitments, and several times threatened to open the borders in the direction of the EU.
the failure of the agreement?
This is a matter of perspective. In fact, much of it, it is not, as it was agreed. So, Greece has transferred, for example, only approximately 1600 Syrian refugees in Turkey. Nevertheless, the agreement from the point of view of the two sides has fulfilled its primary purpose: It is less migrants came across the border to Europe as a crisis-time in 2015, and Turkey received financial aid for the millions of refugees on their soil (and also a certain amount of political appreciation as a vital Partner for the EU). According to the Statements of Erdogan on the weekend, the question of whether Turkey will open now, in fact, consistently the border, and migrants continue to send, or whether it is rather about asking the EU for more money and help. The cooperation is in a serious crisis. Gerald Knaus argues for a second agreement with Turkey, under significant participation of the most affected EU member States and for increased aid for Greece and the Islands. The EU's Problem is that she could communicate to no asylum reform and politically, in principle, not more than 2015/16. Therefore, it is still dependent on Turkey.
What has the EU done for 2015, some in the refugee policy?
After the conclusion of the EU-Turkey-Deals 2016 not happened with regard to the asylum reform, much. Many countries in Eastern and Central Europe, especially Poland and Hungary, are opposed to a quota system for the distribution, as proposed by the European Parliament, strictly. Objective, it had been a long time, to adopt a asylum reform from the seven laws, but for the overall package was no majority. And individual laws to challenge, and to decide, not was also subject to consensus.
However, the European Union is well-prepared overall, a better refugee policy. The crisis of cooperation between Brussels and the capitals today is better. Also, the recording and registration in the Hotspots to work, more or less, so that not more like 2014 and 2015 are almost all migrants from the outer border States unregistered waved on through. In addition, ground-in during the rescue of an informal Routine: A group of States around Germany and France ready to shows on a regular basis, in the Mediterranean, Rescued by the ships to distribute among themselves. According to experts, this model could be a model for all of the refugees that will be entering European soil. The commissioners in Brussels have indicated that the proposals, which you present in the near future, will go in this direction: a distribution of the arriving in the EU refugees on those countries that receive on a voluntary basis. All other States provide financial and logistical contributions. Until then, the path is still far.
How the EU is responding now?
The Opening of the borders has caught the European Union is cold. On Friday the EU had tweeted-external commissioned Josep Borrell, that he had assured the Turkish foreign Minister, Mevlüt Çavusoglu, the borders remained closed. On Saturday morning, this proved to be wrong, and in Brussels, frantic burst of activity. EU Council President Charles Michel was on the phone with Erdogan. According to reports, the Turkish President demanded an additional billion for the supply of the Syria refugees. Michel stressed that the EU should "engage actively" in order to fulfill their part of the agreement with Turkey.
the Commission is the head of the Leyen reiterated on Monday, the standing agreement with Turkey. She had on the weekend in view, to strengthen, if necessary, units of the EU border protection Agency Frontex. She also wants to travel to the border to Greece. EU diplomats stress in many of the discussions that the current Situation is tense, but not with the 2015 to be comparable. On Monday, the EU ambassadors of the 27 member States come together to discuss the desire of the EU chief diplomat Borrell and Greece, a special session of the foreign Minister to stop. This meet anyway on Thursday and Friday in Zagreb, an informal exchange; a special permit would enable you to take there decisions.
How Frontex is not responding?
The European border protection Agency has set for the borders of the EU to Turkey, now the alert level to "high" and announced plans to send forces and equipment in the framework of a "rapid reaction Force" there. It is discussed whether Frontex officials are to be deducted also from other borders. Still, Frontex does not have its own staff for the task Force and is dependent on the member States to use force. "We look at how we can be Greece at its best in the shortest possible time to maintain it," said the authority on Monday. Currently, about 400 employees of the Agency are located on the Greek Islands, some are stationed at the Greek-Turkish border. Also on the border between Turkey and Bulgaria 60 Frontex staff.
Created: 02.03.2020, 16:10 PMUpdated Date: 02 March 2020, 17:01