Just a vaccine, as the experts agree, can stop the current Corona pandemic, which allowed the return to a normal life. The world health organization currently counts 118 vaccine projects, and another 13 that were not yet registered, come to that. You main aim in the immune system, the formation of antibodies, which attach to specific structures of the Virus and thus prevent it from penetrating the cells of the body. The antibodies are produced by the so-called B-cells, which are an important part of the immune system.
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Now, two studies provide a new vaccination strategy that could combat the Coronavirus (Sars-CoV-2) is significantly more effective than the previously tracked projects. It is based on T-cells, which represent a further sharp weapon of immune defense against pathogens. So far, it was unclear whether, and if so, how do you react when infected people for the Virus. Both tests now show that T-cells attack the invader quite.
Where you fight the infection in two Ways: T helper cells can recognize in the body of existing pathogens. Then you pour messenger substances (cytokines) that further components of the immune system to activate. The T-killer cells, which attack Virus-infected body cells and destroy the count. In the case of the Sars-CoV-2-induced lung disease Covid-19 of the course depends on the strength of this immune response.T-helper cells recognize sting protein of Sars-CoV-2
In one of the studies appeared in the journal Cell, researchers with the Infectious disease specialists Alessandro Sette and Shane Crotty from La Jolla, California, Institute for Immunology, which components (proteins) of the Virus, the strongest reaction of the T-trigger cells. To do this, they exposed immune cells, which they won by 20 recuperated Covid-19 patients, fragments of virus proteins. "We chose specifically, patients with a mild course of the disease, to see how normal looks the immune response," says student co-author Sette, "because the Virus can do very unusual things." Whether Corona or Influenza: how to protect yourself from viruses
should anyone Who wants to protect themselves from the corona virus, but also other respiratory tract infections, General hygiene rules to comply with. These are all respiratory infections the same.
- wash hands frequently with soap and water. anti-microbial additives are not usually necessary. Also, the temperature of the water plays no role.
- at Least 20 seconds to wash your hands.
- After Washing, dry hands thoroughly.
- keep your distance to people , the sneezing or coughing, and even disposable handkerchiefs use. After the coughing, Sneezing and blowing your Nose you should wash, also, as soon as possible the hands.
As we found, possessed all the patient's T-helper cells that recognize the so-called barbed-protein of Sars-CoV-2. With this protein the excitation of biomolecules (receptors) on docks that sit on the surfaces of the cells of the body. Other T-helper cells responded to more virus proteins. In addition, T-killer cells, which are provided for the pathogen "sharp" and attack him / her found in 70 percent of the subjects. "It would be worrying if we would have only a marginal response," says study co-author Sette. "But we see a very robust T-cell reaction to the sting protein for the majority of vaccine projects in the target molecule, and similarly, to other proteins. This is very good news for the development of a vaccination“.T-cells from blood samples taken before the pandemic reacted to the Virus
thus, While it was unclear whether the observed cross-reaction put a immune protection, but it could explain why Covid-19 hits some people harder than others. "Any degree of immunization by a corona virus-induced cross-reaction can modify the global Seuchenzug substantially," stresses Settes Mr Crotty. "That can take into account the epidemiologists now with their forecasts for the further course of the pandemic."the Berlin study also activity of T-helper cells
The second study, authored by a group to the immuno-Andreas Thiel of the Charité hospital in Berlin lodges, comes to a similar result. The researchers found in 15 of the 18 hospitalized Covid-19-patients also T-helper cells, which reacted to the sting protein of the Virus. In addition, they analyzed the blood of 68 uninfected volunteers. In 34 percent of the samples, they found to detect T-helper cells, the Sars-CoV-2.
"These results suggest that a large part of the population has contact with the common cold viruses, low immunity, and therefore, with the Covid-19-pathogens to cope," said the immunologist Steven Varga of the University of Iowa who was not involved in the studies, in the scientific journal "Science". "However, none of the studies shows that patients with a cross-reaction does not Covid-19." All the important messages to the Coronavirus in the FOCUS Online Newsletter. Subscribe now.
The data were encouraging, adds to the Virologist Angela Rasmussen of the Columbia University in New York, also in "Science". Thus, while it was unclear whether people who survive an infection that can fight off the Virus in the future. However, there is a good prospect that the observed T cell response induces long-term immunity.
Also for the development of vaccines in both studies are significant. This is because, unlike most of the in-development vaccine to the T-cells are directed not only against the sting of protein, but against several proteins of Sars-CoV-2. This means that agents that target the activation of T-cells, could be much more effective than those that attack only a single target molecule.
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