Our Planet is currently experiencing the sixth mass extinction in its history – there is no doubt in the science. However, during the previous extinction events, which took place in the last 450 million years ago, had natural causes, is the driving force this time man. Exciting, but just no time?
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Now a study published in the journal "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences" shows the extent of the decline. Therein, the authors investigated the biologists Gerardo Ceballos of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, with 29,400 species of land vertebrates on the Red list of threatened species, or the bird protection organization BirdLife International as endangered, are classified.the loss of biodiversity has dramatically accelerated
the researchers found 515 species, of which 1000 or fewer copies of life. the half of which only around 250 individuals are even left. Most of these mammals, reptiles, amphibians and birds live in the tropics or subtropics. In the next 20 years they may disappear completely. The loss of Species has accelerated and, thus, drastically. "In the past 100 years, more than 400 vertebrate species died out", says the study. "In the normal course of Evolution, it would have taken for this loss of 10,000 years."
a further 388 species of terrestrial vertebrate animals, there are still populations of under 5000 copies, with the largest share (84 percent) shares a habitat with the most endangered species of under 1000 individuals. This could trigger a Domino effect, with the loss of a species wiping out another species, the first to depend on.researchers warn against Domino effect of
for Example, the researchers cite the Überjagung of the sea otter in the Bering sea, which feeds a large part of sea urchins. These feed, in turn, the algae preferably brown, the so-called Kelp. Without your tracker, the sea urchins reproduced beautifully and decimated the kelp forests in the sea area. This contributed significantly to the extinction of the actuator's manatee middle of the 18th century. Century, which lived exclusively from Kelp. It is probably the last animal of the species was killed in 1768 of fur animal hunters on the Bering island.
"annihilation produces extinction", warn the authors of the study. "This is probably the biggest environmental problem, because every loss of Species is permanent, and each type plays a large role in the Ecosystem of which we depend on."amphibians are particularly threatened
a Representative for their respective class of Animal they call the Sumatran rhinoceros, the Clarión-Wren (an endemic species that occurs only on the island of Clarión in the Eastern Pacific), the Española giant tortoise, as well as in South America, native harlequin frog, of which only less than 1000 individuals. The amphibians approach, with their hundreds of species of frogs, toads and amphibians of the final extinction rapidly. A fifth of all species are facing extinction or have already disappeared.
As a Symbol of the "amphibian Holocaust" applies to the researchers, the gold toad that lives in the fog of Costa Rica's forests. Your stocks are gathered by a fungus that spreads as a result of human activities, with global warming to the decline of the species contributes.study underestimated the extent of biodiversity loss
in the light of these research results, conservationists should stocks all the animal in your include actions that have less than 5000 individuals, in order to conclude Ceballos and his colleagues. This is not only the preservation of a species as such, but the preservation of their individual populations. Because only you can balance at one point losses elsewhere incurred. In their study, the authors estimate that since the year 1900 more than we're 237,000 individual Vertebrate fauna disappeared.
The analysis is expected to estimate with great certainty the extent of biodiversity loss under, explains co-author Paul Ehrlich, a biologist from the U.S. Stanford University. Because they do not include plants, water, people and invertebrate species, only five percent of terrestrial vertebrates were studied, for which data are available.
"If mankind wipes out other creatures, sawing through the Branch it is sitting on and destroyed a part of their own life-support system", so Honest. "The preservation of endangered species should be raised for governments and institutions to a global emergency, similar to climate change, with which it is associated." Each week provides you FOCUS Online with the most important news from the knowledge Department. Here you can subscribe to the Newsletter.
Already, in a previous study, had Ceballos and Ehrlich described that 32 percent of the of 27,600 vertebrate species worldwide are in decline. However, when a species disappears from a Region, it also lost its special function that you met in this Ecosystem. Often this is not detected until an animal or a Plant exists. An example is the passenger pigeon lived in huge flocks in North America. At the end of the 19th century. Century, it was exterminated in freedom, and since in the early 20th century. Century died the last captive animal, it is considered as eradicated.
The birds ate seeds, nuts and fruit in harsh quantities. This they held other types of lower, the fed also including the whitefoot mouse. But a natural Reservoir for the causative agent of Lyme disease, a bacterium formed. The passenger pigeon was gone, exploded, increases the whitefoot mouse populations, which in the North America, the Lyme disease cases. "The impact of the disappearance of the passenger pigeon a century, were, after the extinction of the felt," according to U.S. Ecologists in the scientific journal "Science".
Similar effects are also expected in the future, when man penetrates still deeper into the nature is still untouched and fear Ceballos and his colleagues, This would be the example of the current Covid-19-pandemic noticeable. The causative agent, a Coronavirus, was most likely from a wild animal to human. "The best protection against Covid-19, the undisturbed natural Habitat was," says Ceballos. "The pandemic is a clear example of how badly we the nature have to be treated."
continue the decline of the species, eventually, failure of Ecosystems, which destabilize, in turn, the economy and politics of a country, as well as famine and refugees could trigger flows, the Mexican researchers. Currently, the trade with wild animals and habitat loss were the biggest problems. But first, climate change will kick-start the "full Tsunami" of devastating disasters.The next five to ten years are crucial
It would, but against all the companies stressed Ceballos. A global ban on the wildlife trade, the reduction of the world population, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, as well as an end to the destruction of habitats and rain on the count of forests, especially in the Brazilian Amazon region. Overall, it is important to provide the sustainability of the Profit.
This change would require it to choose political leaders who set these priorities, emphasize Ceballos and his comrades-in-arms Honest. To advance this, they founded an Initiative called "Stop Extinction" ("Finished erasing"). You should set a framework for new inter-state agreements and tools for environmental education as well as public initiatives to deliver.
"Each of us must understand that what we do in the next five to ten years, will determine the future of humanity," says Ceballos. "We now have to ensure the last opportunity that many of the services that nature provided, will not be sabotaged irreversibly." Otherwise, the sixth mass extinction on the earth to a tipping point that can lead to the collapse of human civilization. Cayman Islands-ridden swamp! Who leaves the boat, signs death sentenceDate Of Update: 06 June 2020, 02:26