The search for a suitable vaccine against the novel Corona-Virus running at full speed. Currently, there are already more than 150 projects. Germany is one of the countries with particularly many COVID-19 vaccine projects. But only about one-tenth of all vaccine projects is already in the clinical Testing phase.
Recently have initiated Researchers in South Africa and Brazil clinical studies for the evaluation of vaccine candidates ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222), which was developed by the University of Oxford. In the particularly badly COVID-19 affected Brazil, the candidate will be tested now in Thousands of health care workers
It is difficult to keep the Overview. Also the list of the world health organization (WHO) needs to be constantly updated.
The development of a safe and effective vaccine has taken in the past, up to 20 years and up to a billion Euro cost.
fortunately, However, the individual enterprises and research institutions do not develop all alone, often there is a very wide-ranging and interdisciplinary collaboration. This saves development cost and time.Why take the vaccine development for so long?
And even if it seems to be very time-consuming: thanks to the global research efforts we are experiencing is actually just a vaccine development in time-lapse.
A pathogen must be researched first, then the vaccine will be developed candidates and the need to carefully be on the effectiveness and possible side effects tested. Then, when a vaccine is found, it must be produced in masses, in the world, and inoculated to be delivered.
safety and effectiveness in the vaccine development a top priority. In addition, the vaccine must be sufficiently available and of course affordable.
in Principle, a vaccine in development is always in several stages, which can last under normal conditions for 15 to 20 years, even if some of the phases can partly take place in parallel.
the current development of a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 is Accelerated mainly by already existing Knowledge and procedures in the case of relatives (Corona)virus. Therefore, some phases can be skipped and the vaccine candidate is already a year and a half after the beginning of the pandemic in the volunteers tested.3 types of vaccines
as different As the Impfprojekte are in the world, there are basically three types of vaccines with which research is conducted.
dead vaccines with virus proteins:
As the Name suggests, contain killed vaccines or inactivated vaccines - only killed pathogens that can no longer reproduce. From the body of the killed pathogens are detected as intruder and the immune system anti-body without the disease breaks out.
By means of this long-proven technology, for example, vaccines against polio, Hepatitis B, diphtheria, whooping cough, Tetanus, or against the flu have been developed.
live vaccines with vector viruses:
live vaccines contain small amounts of a harmless, attenuated pathogens. On vectors, a kind of agent-Transporter, are introduced with the necessary information on the structure of antibodies. This vector virus can reproduce in humans without triggering a disease. Live vaccines, for example against measles, chicken pox, Mumps, and rubella used.
For the development of a COVID-19-vaccine, the researchers in this vector virus or more of their surface proteins by SARS-CoV-2 proteins exchanged. The body interprets this as infection, and the immune system reacts with an appropriate immune response. This procedure has also been developed already, an already approved vaccine against Ebola, which is caused, as SARS and MERS also by a Coronavirus.
especially when pathogens are rapidly genetically change, such as influenza virus, or when such pathogens occur very suddenly, as an "Emerging Disease Threats", such as Zika and SARS, then the classic anti-vital vaccines are great. High hopes (or fears) to rest, therefore, on the Messenger-RNA (mRNA), the so-called Messenger RNA.
These are, in principle, not from virus particles or its Protein fragments, but from mRNA synthesized in the laboratory is produced and the precise Instructions for pathogen-specific antigens receives, the immune response they provoke.
especially in cancer therapy, and those RNA-vaccines are used. But also in the current Corona pandemic such RNA seem to be suitable vaccines are good because they can be relatively quickly and in very large quantities and because they are already in low doses. The crux of the matter: to date, no approved RNA-vaccines still exist.when can we expect a vaccine?
There are just too many contingencies to be able to seriously tell when there is a finished vaccine.
Very confident the world health organization, according to the this year, hundreds of millions of doses of a vaccine are available, and next year two billion doses could be produced, so Soumya Swaminathan is. Just because many different vaccine candidates will be developed in parallel, increases the Chance that one or more prove to be effective.
The European medicines Agency EMA expects in the case of an optimum curve, with the approval of a vaccine in the spring of 2021. Already that would be a record-breaking performance in the vaccine development.
It is to be hoped that at the end of some of the numerous vaccine candidates make the race. As for global Welfare, it would be best, if possible, some of the vaccines were approved, which are produced in many production facilities and, if possible, far-reaching and inoculated are to be distributed.
Since coping with the Corona-crisis is a global concern, want to support many companies and research institutions mutually and maximum production capacity or existing capacity to further expand.partnering for success
the World billions of doses of the vaccine are needed. And of course, with vaccines, earn a lot of money. This has led in the past few weeks, always subject to fierce exclusive to the financial markets or wild conspiracy theories.
Less often, however, is reported about the enormous costs associated with vaccine development, production, and also with the subsequent vaccination campaigns.
Often, a vaccine candidate falls at a later point during a clinical study or approvals are delayed. Then invested million are already lost. Especially when the companies have started to save time already, in parallel with the Clinical studies, with the production, which must then be destroyed completely. to distribute
with the development of the vaccine-related costs and also risks on more shoulders, have closed numerous joint projects of government and aid organisations, corporations, foundations, or research institutions to so - called "Product Development partnership" (PDP) together.
In the case of larger epidemics may be awarded through this PDP funds mostly in the Form of temporary subsidies (Grants) to companies or research facilities that would be overwhelmed without such subsidies. This PDP have proven to be, for example, in the development of new drugs against Malaria, tuberculosis and sleeping sickness.Europe were gathered in solidarity
in order, if possible,the whole world benefits from a vaccine, and the distribution does not depend on the purchasing power of such a country, at a donor conference of the EU Commission7, 4 billion euros.
at the beginning of June have closed in Germany, France, Italy and the Netherlands in addition to an "Inclusive Vaccine Alliance", to ensure that the appropriate vaccines to be produced quickly and at as many locations as possible in the EU. So the EU wants to not only its member States, but also about poorer African countries with affordable vaccines available. As the Name suggests this "Inclusive Vaccine Alliance is open" for other countries.
author: Alexander friend Revolutionary concept published in the PCP is a Revolutionary concept in the
*The post "COVID-19: vaccine development in a time lapse" is from Deutsche Welle. Contact with the executives here.Deutsche Welle Updated Date: 28 June 2020, 07:26