Habermas' new history of philosophy: offer for understanding

Jürgen Habermas has written an important book: a two-volume history of philosophy, which is also a comment at the time. 6. March 2004: Jürgen Habermas in Vien

Habermas' new history of philosophy: offer for understanding

Jürgen Habermas has written an important book: a two-volume history of philosophy, which is also a comment at the time.

6. March 2004: Jürgen Habermas in Vienna photo: Jet Budelman

Nothing of theological content will be non-continued existence of converts; a any will the sample need to make, to the Secular, Profane immigrate.“ This puzzles set of Adorno's tale employs Jürgen Habermas, the great philosopher of the unfinished secular Modernity, for quite some time. After, at the latest, the terrorist attack of 9/11, it was shockingly clear that Religion was not Disappearing, as the modernization theorists of the 20th century. Century had adopted, he met with the then cardinal Ratzinger, to discuss the relation of secularization, rationality, and Religion. Now, Habermas has shortly after his 90. The birthday of a philosophy of history, which has chosen the constellation of Faith and Knowledge as a guide.

It is these two planets of Faith and Knowledge stood in astronomer's terms, the question of how in different historical periods to each other. Habermas wants to show "how the philosophy is complementary to the formation of a dogmatic Christian theology in terms of philosophy – in turn, the essential contents of religious Traditions and in reasoning-capable Knowledge has to be transformed". The objective point of this story, the night taphysische Think so, for the last reasons, causes and principles of the world are no longer recognizable.

Habermas's genealogy of post-metaphysical thinking is the axis of time. Thus the Karl Jaspers called half a Millennium, from 800 to 200 BC, in the lasting religions have emerged. Habermas followed here – always with an eye on the changing forms of social integration – cognitive steps in the Self - and world-understanding of intellectual elites with high social potency.

Such cognitive steps in the development from Mythos to Logos, or the discursive dispute the truth of the mythical tales is still a foreign, or the Moralizing of the Holy by the law, which calls for obedience, and saving justice and promises are for example. In the axis of time, a cognitive Revolution is taking place, therefore, according to Habermas: from mythical to metaphysical Thinking.

Since the world revolution of the axis of time, the paths of development of the great civilizations of the branch. Habermas focuses on the Western development path has led to the specific Western constellation of Faith and Knowledge, and describes him as a learning process in which the Self and the world of the socialised people factual light. The big Narrative is how Faith and Knowledge in Christian Platonism and under the umbrella of the Roman find Catholic Church to each other, in the late middle ages and then differentiate, and finally, in the early modern era be separated from each other. The great fork in the road is the 17. A century in which the philosophy and the science to go the distance to Christianity, and polemical, because Christianity is a powerful and repressive.

With Hume and Kant branch, in turn, the paths of post-metaphysical thinking, and in a szientist and so is scientific light, and a komprehensive, so the rational world - and self-understanding in a comprehensive question of philosophy. Here is a new constellation between philosophy, science and Religion. Unlike Hume, Kant wants to reconstruct those from the theological heritage of practical philosophy master of fundamental questions so that you can be under the conditions of post-metaphysical thinking, with good reason, answered.

According to Hume and Kant follows in the Wake of the revolutions in America and France, as well as the expansion and separation of capitalist economic cycles and the functional differentiation of society and its Sciences in the 19th century. Century another paradigm shift from the subject to the philosophy of language. Because man, according to Habermas, is first of all a communicative vergesellschaftetes subject. History, society, and culture are perceived by the philosophy and penetrate them. Hegel's students operate, the social and the linguistic turn.

as far As Habermas’ great narrative of the Evolution of the rational discourse. But what his concern is? "A history of philosophy" is the name of the book, alluding to herder, "this Too a philosophy of history for the formation of humanity". "A history of philosophy", namely: not just another history of philosophy, but also a current intervention, a commentary on the time.

The book is a bid for understanding, the power of the secular philosopher, the religious colleagues. Habermas is interested in how the communication between on the one hand, philosophy and theology and Religion can be continued after the separation of Faith and Knowledge. However, he is not unconditionally ready to talk. For one, he separates the secularization of the world and self-understanding of the secularization of the authority of the state and the society. On the other hand he notes that the theology itself has adopted since Kierkegaard is a anthropological-night taphysische shape and it has become a legitimate competitor. But this is the only way. The limits of tolerance are reached for Habermas, if the claim to Universality of reason from a dogmatic claim to truth of religious faith is disputed.

At the same time, Habermas, a critique of Scientism: "the philosophy is a scientific way of thinking, but it is not a science, working more and more on always 'less', that is narrower and more precisely defined subject areas to learn; it distinguishes between science and enlightenment, if you want to explain what is meant by our growing scientific knowledge of the world for us – for us as a people, as modern contemporaries, and as individual persons.“ [...] "The question is, what can trust, the philosophy is still, and should, decide today, regardless of your blatantly secular character, that transformed heritage of religious origin."

Habermas puts himself in the Tradition of Kant, Hegel and Marx, to him it is the inner connection between theoretical and practical reason. Ultimately, Habermas is in search of the traces of reason in the history of philosophy. For Habermas the project of Modernity and of the enlightenment is still full: One should not observe the world and determine what is. You should, and it may also assess, to your participate, you are political figures. We can learn, we can progress, like being able to say no. A reasonable freedom is possible.

This is Habermas's own brought social theory to the point. Now, the entire history of philosophy is aimed at you. Stunning. And at the same time very optimistic, when one considers the current crisis phenomena in the capitalist democracies in America and Europe, the return of dictatorship and the people's myths or the global problems of financial crises and Refugee crises, Wars, and cultural struggle, and not to forget climate change, the online culture industry and the anti-social networks. Habermas believes to the social cognitive progress, even to the moral cognitive progress as a thinking movement. The history of philosophy is merely an Evolution to rational discourse?

Jürgen Habermas: "a history of philosophy". Volume I and II, Suhrkamp Verlag, Berlin 2019, 1.752 pages, 98 Euro.

This is possibly the last major book by Jürgen Habermas, the last word in his own case, a summary balance sheet. It is weighty, complex and demanding as the theory of communicative action, and it is the fascinating universe of a stupendous erudition and sharp-witted thinking is revealed again. Habermas is a Kantian, but he actually believes in the communicative rationality and the social cognitive progress, a commander-in-chief masianer! Once again someone presents in an allusion to Herder and Habermas "also" a history of philosophy, this will surely have found therein their place.

Updated Date: 17 November 2019, 16:00

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