A national holiday is a marker, an entry in the History. It celebrates a tradition, a continuity with the past. But it can also host the present, to be refreshed by the issues more current. It is as well that Emmanuel Macron has intended this year by replacing the traditional military parade by the parade more a citizen of the carer. A way to the bottom for him to stay right in his boots on spinning until the end of its metaphor often made fun of the war against the coronavirus.
But, since the economic crisis has already taken the not on the health crisis, would it not have been necessary, in the same spirit, add to these rolls, a panel of players who will contribute in the coming months to help the country recover ? At least they did not want to put the cart before the horse in a nation which is, of course, advocates the recognition of its great men and its small, but who prefer to try on pieces for the services rendered.
Read also July 14 : the pinching in the heart of the armed
This July 14, will, therefore, be singular. Note, however, that there has been since 1880, the date of its institution as a national holiday (according to the draft law put forward in may by Benjamin Raspail), celebrations tones specific, inflected by the circumstances. Let us also recall two or three things before you review the 14 July is not like the others. This date is double : it refers to 1789 and the storming of the Bastille, but also to 1790 and the feast of the Federation on the Champ-de-Mars. The 14 July is rioter and the pacific, divider and a third party.
A date among other
As pointed out by Mona Ozouf in an article in the journal Story, the deputies republicans who voted its adoption in 1880 had more in mind the feast that brings people together that the taking of weapons. This vote was taken at the same time as the amnesty of the communards : they were not allowing anyone to the bench of the nation. On July 14, was already a national holiday during the Revolution, which was however well other : 10 August (taking of the Tuileries), January 21 (king's death), on 22 September (the date of proclamation of the Republic), 27 July (9 Thermidor-fall of Robespierre)....
The Empire buried, of course the Restoration would not hear about it, the monarchy of July was the 29th of July (1830), the Second Republic, may 4 (ratification of the Republic in 1848, but also June 4, 1789, a procession of the states general), the Second Empire came back to the 15 August, the feast of The Assumption and the birthday of napoleon Bonaparte. Finally, we recall that, during the vote in 1880, members of parliament, who do mesurèrent probably not the issue symbolic, envisioned also, apart from the 15 August, all of these other dates, as well as on the 24th of February, 1848, the departure of Louis-Philippe), 4 August (abolition of the feudal system) and the 20 June 1789, the oath of the Jeu de paume and 1792, the input of the people in the Tuileries gardens). In contrast to the 4 July American, July 14, did not at first unanimously, beyond the hostility that he did not fail to provoke the catholics and the monarchists, who saw it as a prelude to other July 14. But this 14 July was a feast, in charge of completing the Revolution, to close the long era of riots, insurrections, such as " a sponge on the slate national."
July 14, 1880
July 14, 1886
The beginning of the popularity of general Boulanger, minister of War, who did strike the members of the royal families, treated with sweetness to the miners of Decazeville, authorized the wearing of the beard among the soldiers, and that, above all, embodied the spirit of revenge tends to be somewhat neglected by the governments. While this 14 July must pay tribute to troops returning from Tonkin, it is at the centre of all eyes in this show is very patriotic. Nearly 100 000 pamphlets to his glory – the written press is in full boom – will be distributed following the ceremony.
July 14, 1919
This is the first parade on July 14, having been held previously at the hippodrome de Longchamp. "Who has seen this day lived ", will declare Clemenceau who shed tears. Fifteen days after the signing of the treaty of Versailles, despite the social tensions, in spite of the reluctance of catholics, 2 million people are massed along the route, dressed with masthead ensign of national symbols, which begins at the porte Maillot (remember the Defence, battle against Prussia in 1870) and goes up to the Republic, passing through the Champs-Elysees, the Concorde, the avenue of the Opera. The day before, we gathered in front of a cenotaph (empty) (the unknown soldier will only be installed on November 11, 1920, under the Arc de Triomphe in tribute to the 1.4 million dead. The next day, France discovered his mutilated : they are close to 1 000 to open the procession, followed by the 3 new marshals, appointed the day before by Poincaré, Joffre, Foch, Pétain. The armies of the world ally pass behind them, in alphabetical order : American, English, Belgian, Chinese, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese, Romanian, Yugoslavian... The hairy close walking. The Republic pays tribute to its missing and would like to thank its allies. The tradition of the parade is put in place.
July 14, 1935
The feast patriotic became the occasion of a great popular assembly. To respond to the February 6, 1934, to the threat of fascism, the coming to power of Pierre Laval, a large meeting unit is arranged at the stage Buffalo de Montrouge, which combines radical, socialist, communist, as well as many associations and trade unions. The meeting is followed by a parade of the Bastille to the porte de Vincennes, which brings together 500 000 people. It is the act of birth of the popular Front.
July 14, 1936
A month after the Matignon, three months after the coming to power of the popular Front, a second show, popular, a worker, and organized the after-noon, meets at the military parade in the morning. A million protesters through the East of paris, celebrating the triumph of the Front still at the peak of his popularity. This is the " summer 36 ". Three days of celebration are set by the government under the motto " the bread, the army, the people ".
July 14, 1945
After the July 14, of the war that the regime of Petain had transformed into ceremonies of homage to the dead, similar to those of 11 November, the procession resumes its rights. It takes place from Vincennes to Bastille, after general de Gaulle and general de Lattre had reviewed the course of Vincennes, the fighters of the army of the Rhine and Danube with the delivery of decorations. "This time, the triumphal march took place from east to west ", note ironically de Gaulle in his Memoirs. The fiber-patriotic and military wins again.
14 July 1968
This is the occasion for de Gaulle, who had already used the parade of the 14 July 1958 to show that he had taken the business in hand, to remember that the crisis of may is past. It is also an opportunity, after the ouster of the Pompidou, the first output of the First minister, Maurice Couve de Murville, who follows at her side for the parade of the troops on the Champs-Élysées, where, on the 30th of may last, nearly a million protesters came to shout their support to de Gaulle. The day will not be less punctuated by incidents between the police and demonstrators of the far left, and students.
July 14, 1974
Valery Giscard d'estaing, two months after his election, intends to break with the traditions. Finished on the Champs-Elysées, you will move the army into the neighborhoods and we lay a wreath no longer under the Arc de Triomphe, but to the Bastille, a place doubly marked-to-left (1789-1830). It is a failure, and the initiative will not be renewed.Updated Date: 13 July 2020, 01:33