The sars coronavirus continues to wreak havoc in the world. The impact of the extreme level of stress and anxiety it causes can have serious consequences on physical health and on the lives of the people.
While the second wave of containment and its attendant restrictions are already making their appearance in some countries, there is still too little immediate impact of these measures on the well-being of the population.
within the center of research of Lifestyle of the EM Lyon Business School, we have put in place a vast study conducted in France and the United Kingdom – the countries most severely affected by the virus in Europe, each totalling over 30,000 deaths to date – to analyze the consequences of the period of confinement on the well-being and behaviour of the population.
To do this, we have sought to determine the relevant areas of the common life which could be affected by the confinement as well as the factors that may explain variations in terms of impact. Our analysis allowed us to distinguish five profiles in different types of people according to their level of psychological well-being – or mental – during the confinement.
homogeneous groups, regardless of the country
In the course of our investigation, we interviewed a total of 1,040 people, divided between France and the United Kingdom. The data were collected at the end of the confinement, in may 2020.
We are interested in the effects impacting the well-being, physical and psychological, and professional life of student, financial situation and consumption habits, for example eating habits, social relations, physical exercise and the use of media.
The psychological well-being is measured here according to the frequency with which the individual feels positive or negative emotions throughout the investigation, and according to some of the factors are psychological such as the feeling of a life fully accomplished, how social relations are experienced, the level of self-esteem and the relationship to life in general.
quite interesting, the five groups identified types are proving to be very homogeneous, regardless of the country. They have in common the following key characteristics :
expanded steadily (21 % of the respondents). In this group, we find the level of general well-being the more positive. The respondents stated that they have felt positive emotions (joy, happiness, satisfaction) strong frequent during the containment compared to negative emotions (fear, anger, sadness). In the same way, it is here that one finds the best average in terms of physical condition.
The emotional (20 %). is the main Feature of this group, the respondents stated that they have felt strong emotions, be they positive or negative, in the course of the confinement. So far, it is the second group in terms of level of general well-being postponed. The respondents are state of minor changes in regards to their physical condition, whether these changes are positive or negative. The group of on an emotional level is also more widespread in France (23 %) than in the United Kingdom (17 %).
stable (18 %). This is the group in which respondents report the lowest level of effects on well-being, a sign of stability. They claim to have felt positive and negative emotions, but less intense than in the other groups. 78 % of respondents in this group report no change in their physical condition during the confinement.
anxiety (29 %). In this group, respondents state of well-being to negative. The intensity and frequency of negative emotions experienced are more important than those of positive emotions. 37% of respondents in this group have suffered a decline in their physical condition during the confinement. This group is more prevalent in the United Kingdom (32 %) than in France (25 %).
The apathetic (12 %). Here, it is the level of well-being the most negative of all groups. Crossed by negative emotions intense and frequent, respondents report a considerable decline of their physical condition during the confinement (60 % of the members of this group).
The 5 different profiles, depending on their state of well-being in the containment, available in 4 dimensions. Scale : 7 corresponds to a positive state, 4 corresponds to a steady state/no change, 1 corresponds to a negative state. © DRp>
However, this is the income and changes in financial status among respondents who discriminate the most different profiles.
The profiles, which have suffered the most from the effects of the confinement (the anxious and apathetic) are characterized by a financial situation considerably weakened.
These profiles were the net income of the weak and they are the ones who have experienced more negative effects in financial matters compared to all other groups. Thus, 36 % of the apathetic will earn a net income per household of less than 1,600 euros and 65 % of them report that their financial situation has worsened during the confinement.
It is to be noted that, among the profiles that have suffered the most from the effects of the confinement, there are more people living alone, and especially young men and single. It is the apathetic that the proportion of young people (18-24 years) and men (56 %) was the highest among the respondents.
in contrast, the profiles of the most successful in terms of well-being (the goodness, the emotional) are those in which the net revenues are highest and those that have experienced the least negative effects on their financial situation during the confinement.
furthermore, the greater the number of people living under one roof increases – especially if there is the presence of children in the household, the greater the chance of belonging to these profiles are great. Thus, in the open, only 19 % live alone. It is in the goodness that is also found the largest number of married couples (48 % of the members), with a prevalence also of women (57 % on average).
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finally, the results also show that the more the respondents are elderly, they are more likely to be open rather than be affected by the effects of the confinement. It is in the groups of the expressive and emotional that we find the most significant proportion (31 % of the members of these groups) older people (45 years and over).
The expressive more active than others
Curiously, it is found that the modes and habits of consumption in response to the different profiles identified.
The blossom stand out more physical exercise, more home cooking, more socializing through social media, more consumption of screen – for example, it is in the fulfilled watch the online streaming services was the most prevalent (76 % of the members). Conversely, the apathetic reported a significant decrease in these same activities during the containment.
today, there are few studies that provide comparative data at the international level to establish global trends about the impact of confinement on the well-being and behavior of individuals.
other studies have helped to highlight the way in which people can potentially manage the difficult period of the confinement, for example, engage in "activities that nostalgic" such as knitting, baking, singing, gardening, in "slowing down" their pace of life.
Our study has enabled us to demonstrate clearly that the best financial situations and professional, a large number of people in the household, and the fact of being a woman are the decisive criteria that increase the chances to be counted among the most flourished in the period of confinement.
Thus, it is essential to recognize and take into account the effects immediate and significant that the containment may have had on the well-being of individuals. It is also important to note that these effects can be explained socially and affect more severely the most vulnerable.
Joonas Rokka, professor of marketing, EM Lyon ; Karine Rays, an associate professor in marketing, EM Lyon, Lotta Harju, assistant professor-researcher in psychology of work and organizations, EM Lyon ; Maira Lopes, a researcher in the Lifestyle Research Center, EM Lyon ; Massimo Airoldi, assistant professor, EM Lyon