Space gems: A universe full of rubies, diamonds, sapphires, and emeralds

Meteorites that bring diamonds to Earth, and they rain down on Neptune, Uranus, and other planets rich in rubies, sapphires and opals.

Space gems: A universe full of rubies, diamonds, sapphires, and emeralds

Meteorites that bring diamonds to Earth, and they rain down on Neptune, Uranus, and other planets rich in rubies, sapphires and opals.

This is a fantasy medieval tale about lands far away in other solar systems and galaxies, brimming with riches for those who dare to face the challenges and find the treasure. They are not the conclusion of scientists of the Universe, who have examined the composition, density, and luminosity a variety of celestial bodies to determine that they are possible. It is important to understand what gemstones are and how they were formed on our planet.

However, the definition of a 'precious gemstone' does not depend on its geological or chemical properties. It is based on an individual's appreciation for beauty. A mineral can be considered precious if it has certain elements, such as its beauty, scarcity, and ability to be carved into jewelry, such as rings, necklaces, bracelets and rings. According to the traditional definition of gemstones, there are four: rubies, sapphires and diamonds. Semi-precious minerals are used as jewelry adornments. These include opals, aquamarines, amethysts, and turquoise. This is a semi-precious mineral, not an oyster secretion. However, it is included because of its jewelry value.

The diamond is the queen of precious stones. Its rarity meant that it was only available to the most wealthy and powerful until the 19th century. However, its mining has made it more accessible. We now know that diamond can be purchased by everyone. An example is an emery containing diamond powder. Although diamonds for jewelry are rare, they are becoming more common.

As carbon is crystallized, diamond is also called graphite. Carbon is the basic ingredient of life on the planet. It is also one of the main causes of climate change in the form carbon dioxide. High temperatures and pressures are the best conditions for diamond formation. They are more than 3 billion years old. They were formed in the Earth’s mantle, not coal (despite what the Superman comics might say).

Rubies are a type of corundum. It is a crystalline aluminum oxide with small amounts chromium. The other gemstone sapphire is crystallized aluminum oxide. However, it contains small amounts of iron and titanium. They are formed deep in the Earth under extreme heat and pressure. Corundum is a colorless, non-toxic mineral that crystallizes when oxygen and aluminum atoms are compressed. It can take on different colors depending upon the impurities.

A thin layer made up of nanodiamonds. A thin layer of nanodiamonds was discovered on three continents in 2007. This discovery is likely due to a comet hitting our planet 13,000 years ago. It would have led to the extinction of megafauna in northern hemisphere, and the disappearance or Clovis culture in North America.

On the other hand, emeralds are formed from igneous rocks made of beryl. This mineral is composed of silicon, oxygen and beryllium. It takes on its striking green color due to small amounts of chromium and vanadium. Aquamarine is a semi-precious gemstone that contains iron. These can be made with hydrothermal fluids that are found in the earth's crust. They rise to higher levels and then cool down to create veins. This is where emeralds crystallize slowly. They can also be formed from magma from the depths. This cools and crystallizes.

Recreation of the white dwarf BPM37093, with its diamond center. / HARVARD UNIVERSITY

This makes it clear that you can create all types of gems in space if you have the right chemical at the right temperature and the right conditions. .

Researchers of the Universe predict that other distant solar system planets could contain rubies, sapphires and zirconia. This is a cheap, but beautiful, copy of diamonds. Mao warns us that precious stones from outer space won't be able to be used for gems because they are too fragile.

The star BPM37093 is located 50 light years away from our planet. It is also known as V886 Centauri, because it is in Centaurus' constellation. It is one of the so called 'white dwarfs'. These stars are the last stage of the so known'main sequence' stars, such as our sun. In about 10,000 million years, it will also become a dwarf. These stars, which have run out of hydrogen to fuel them, fuse helium in a process known as 'triple-alpha' until they become mostly carbon and oxygen.

A group of astronomers suggested that if a white dwarf cools due to the immense pressures at its centre, its material would crystallize. We can also study the star's pulsations to learn more about its structure, especially if it experiences them. Based on these data, it was determined that BPM 37093's core must have a crystallization rate of between 32% to 90% since 2004. Crystallized carbon, which is diamond, can be found in this star.

This star was then given the name "Lucy" by scientists, in honor of the Beatles song "Lucy in the Sky With Diamonds". This is just one possible relationship this star diamond has with popular culture. Lucy was a part Jim Jarmush’s film 'Only Lovers left Alive', John C. Wright’s novel Count to a Trillion', and the webcomic Abstruse Goose’.

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