Nature is a continuous repetition of patterns. The symmetry of nature is everywhere, from the human body's two sides to the halves of a ladybug or a ladypad, to the lily pads, spider's web, and snowflakes. Even the smallest structures like proteins or RNA, there are countless examples of it. What advantage does this mirror-like appearance have?
This debate has been ongoing for many years. It has been argued that evolutionary biologists attribute it to natural selection. However, "it is so repeated that it must respond with something else." Chico Camargo (Professor of Computer Science at the University of Exeter in England) tweeted this statement. He is also coauthor of a recently published article in the prestigious journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, which may provide a possible explanation.
Iain Johnston (another author of the study and researcher at the University of Bergen in Norway) said that it was easier to tell someone how to lay tiles on the ground than to give them instructions for repeating rows of squares.
This research does not mean that natural selection is ineffective in guiding evolution. However, it does show that it is not the only factor that influences evolution. Camargo explained to the American newspaper that evolution has millions of possible forms, but biological structures are often simple and symmetrical. However, this does not necessarily mean there aren't other asymmetrical aspects. For example, male fiddler crabs would not have one claw that is larger than the other.
While research has been focused on the symmetrical function of microscopic structures like RNA, researchers believe this logic could be extended to more complex organisms. Johnston says that it would be a great idea if nature used the same method to make all sunflower petals, rather than using a different process for each one.